To Kill A Mockingbird is ultimately about growing up. Over the course of the novel, several important lessons are introduced to Scout, and in the last ten chapters you see her finally fully realize their true meaning.
At the beginning of the book, when she is talking to Atticus about her first day at school, he tells her about putting herself in another person’s shoes, considering things from his or her point of view. It is only at the end of the novel, standing of the Radley porch, do you see that she fully understands what he was trying to say. It is in that moment that you can see how much she has truly grown up.
She also learns about racism and courage. Understanding that many of the people in Maycomb are racist is hard for her and for Jem, especially after watching the trial. Learning that Tom Robinson will be convicted, even though he is innocent is difficult for the children to comprehend and hard for them to come to terms with. Both Scout and Jem learn about courage and also become more aware that racism exists in the wider world.
Finally, she learns about the mockingbird. Throughout the novel, a mockingbird has been a symbol of innocence, of someone who has done no harm. When Scout and Jem receive guns for Christmas one year, Atticus tells Jem that he can, ‘shoot at all the bluejays he wants, if he can hit them, but remember that it is a sin to kill a mockingbird.’ You see that Scout understands not only this, but it’s deeper meaning, when she talks to Atticus about Boo Radley. In a way, she says, convicting Boo Radley would be like shooting a mockingbird.